On this Memorial Day in the USA one could rightly feel that those who deserve remembrance are not only the American soldiers who died while in uniform, but the uncounted millions of people all over the world who died at the hands of American soldiers.
Sadly, this list is too long to be ever made and the names of the victims all too often forgotten. How can we who oppose wars and violence express our remembrance of, and solidarity with, those many millions killed?
Maybe we should just silently contemplate the list of US wars and armed interventions in this country’s short history?
At the bottom of this endless list there is a shorter list of so-called “American-Indian battles” which really does not even begin to express the real nature of what took place, something truly unheard of in the entire history of our planet: the genocide of not one ethnic group, but of all the ethnic groups of an entire continent. Truly, a special term should be coined for this phenomenon as even the term “genocide” is way too modest in scope to adequately express the horrific reality of what took place.
What is totally missing from this list is the internal war against African slaves and, later, Black Americans which was waged from day 1 and which is, I strongly believe, still being waged today (“Toms” like Powell, Condi or Obamba notwithstanding). While this war does not have easily identifiable battles it is no less bloody and ugly than any other war.
Also missing from our list is the war on the poor – another mostly forgotten but equally vicious and unjust war waged by this Empire.
The very incomplete list of external and internal wars waged by the US man in uniform below will have to be the much simplified and abridged version of real thing.
May this abjectly long list of wars (taken from the Wikipedia – thus the highly “politically correct” characterization of each instance of the use military force) be a cenotaph of sorts for all of their innocent and forgotten victims.
List of US wars and armed interventions between 1775 and 2007:
1775-83 American Revolutionary War
1794 — The Whiskey Rebellion
1798-1800 — Undeclared Naval War with France (Quasi-War). This contest included land actions, such as that in the Dominican Republic, city of Puerto Plata, where U.S. Marines captured a French privateer under the guns of the forts. Congress authorized military action through a series of statutes.
1801-05 — Tripoli. The First Barbary War included the USS George Washington and USS Philadelphia affairs and the Eaton expedition, during which a few Marines landed with United States Agent William Eaton to raise a force against Tripoli in an effort to free the crew of the Philadelphia from the Barbary pirates. Tripoli declared war but not the United States, although Congress authorized US military action by statute.
1806 — Mexico (Spanish territory). Captain Zebulon M. Pike, with a platoon of troops, invaded Spanish territory at the headwaters of the Rio Grande on orders from General James Wilkinson. He was made prisoner without resistance at a fort he constructed in present day Colorado, taken to Mexico, and later released after seizure of his papers.
1806-10 — Gulf of Mexico. American gunboats operated from New Orleans against Spanish and French privateers off the Mississippi Delta, chiefly under Captain John Shaw and Master Commandant David Porter.
1810 — West Florida (Spanish territory). Governor William C.C. Claiborne of Louisiana, on orders of President James Madison, occupied with troops territory in dispute east of the Mississippi as far as the Pearl River, later the eastern boundary of Louisiana. He was authorized to seize as far east as the Perdido River.
1812 – Amelia Island and other parts of east Florida, then under Spain. Temporary possession was authorized by President James Madison and by Congress, to prevent occupation by any other power; but possession was obtained by General George Mathews in so irregular a manner that his measures were disavowed by the President.
1812-15 – War of 1812. On June 18, 1812, the United States declared war against the United Kingdom. Among the issues leading to the war were British interception of neutral ships and blockades of the United States during British hostilities with France.
1813 — West Florida (Spanish territory). On authority given by Congress, General Wilkinson seized Mobile Bay in April with 600 soldiers. A small Spanish garrison gave way. Thus U.S. troops advanced into disputed territory to the Perdido River, as projected in 1810. No fighting.
1813-14 – Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia). US forces built a fort on the island of Nukahiva to protect three prize ships which had been captured from the British.
1814 — Spanish Florida. General Andrew Jackson took Pensacola and drove out the British forces.
1814-25 — Caribbean. Engagements between pirates and American ships or squadrons took place repeatedly especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Yucatan. Three thousand pirate attacks on merchantmen were reported between 1815 and 1823. In 1822, Commodore James Biddle employed a squadron of two frigates, four sloops of war, two brigs, four schooners, and two gunboats in the West Indies.
1815 — Algiers. The second Barbary War was declared against the United States by the Dey of Algiers of the Barbary states, an act not reciprocated by the United States. Congress did authorize a military expedition by statutes. A large fleet under Captain Stephen Decatur attacked Algiers and obtained indemnities.
1815 — Tripoli. After securing an agreement from Algiers, Captain Decatur demonstrated with his squadron at Tunis and Tripoli, where he secured indemnities for offenses during the War of 1812.
1816 — Spanish Florida. United States forces destroyed Negro Fort, which harbored fugitive slaves making raids into United States territory.
1816-18 — Spanish Florida – First Seminole War. The Seminole Indians, whose area was a haven for escaped slaves and border ruffians, were attacked by troops under General Jackson and General Edmond P. Gaines and pursued into northern Florida. Spanish posts were attacked and occupied, British citizens executed. In 1819 the Floridas were ceded to the United States.
1817 – Amelia Island (Spanish territory off Florida). Under orders of President James Monroe, United States forces landed and expelled a group of smugglers, adventurers, and freebooters.
1818 — Oregon. The USS Ontario dispatched from Washington, which made a landing at the mouth of the Columbia River to assert US claims. Britain had conceded sovereignty but Russia and Spain asserted claims to the area. Subsequently, American and British claims to the Oregon Country were resolved with the Oregon Treaty of 1846.
1820-23 — Africa. Naval units raided the slave traffic pursuant to the 1819 act of Congress. [Slave Traffic]
1822 — Cuba. United States naval forces suppressing piracy landed on the northwest coast of Cuba and burned a pirate station.
1823 — Cuba. Brief landings in pursuit of pirates occurred April 8 near Escondido; April 16 near Cayo Blanco; July 11 at Siquapa Bay; July 21 at Cape Cruz; and October 23 at Camrioca.
1824 — Cuba. In October the USS Porpoise landed bluejackets near Matanzas in pursuit of pirates. This was during the cruise authorized in 1822.
1824 — Puerto Rico (Spanish territory). Commodore David Porter with a landing party attacked the town of Fajardo which had sheltered pirates and insulted American naval officers. He landed with 200 men in November and forced an apology. Commodore Porter was later court-martialed for overstepping his powers.
1825 — Cuba. In March cooperating American and British forces landed at Sagua La Grande to capture pirates.
1827 — Greece. In October and November landing parties hunted pirates on the Mediterranean islands of Argenteire, Miconi, and Androse.
1831-32 – Falkland Islands. Captain Duncan of the USS Lexington investigated the capture of three American sailing vessels and sought to protect American interests.
1832 – Sumatra. (Indonesia) – February 6 to 9. A naval force landed and stormed a fort to punish natives of the town of Quallah Battoo for plundering the American ship Friendship.
1833 — Argentina. – October 31 to November 15. A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect the interests of the United States and other countries during an insurrection.
1835-36 — Peru. – December 10, 1835, to January 24, 1836, and August 31 to December 7, 1836. Marines protected American interests in Callao and Lima during an attempted revolution.
1836 — Mexico. General Gaines occupied Nacogdoches (Texas), disputed territory, from July to December during the Texan war for independence, under orders to cross the “imaginary boundary line” if an Indian outbreak threatened.
1838 – The Caroline Affair on Navy Island, Canada. After the failure of the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837 favoring Canadian democracy and independence from the British Empire; William Lyon Mackenzie and his rebels fled to Navy Island where they declared the Republic of Canada. American sympathizers sent supplies on the SS Caroline, which was intercepted by the British and set ablaze, after killing one American. It was falsely reported that dozens of Americans were killed as they were trapped on board, and American forces retaliated by burning a British steamer while it was in US waters.
1838-39 – Sumatra (Indonesia). – December 24, 1838, to January 4, 1839. A naval force landed to punish natives of the towns of Quallah Battoo and Muckie (Mukki) for depredations on American shipping.
1840 — Fiji Islands. – July. Naval forces landed to punish natives for attacking American exploring and surveying parties.
1841 — Drummond Island, Kingsmill Group (Pacific Ocean). A naval party landed to avenge the murder of a seaman by the natives.
1841 – Samoa. – February 24. A naval party landed and burned towns after the murder of an American seaman on Upolu Island.
1842 — Mexico. Commodore T.A.C. Jones, in command of a squadron long cruising off California, occupied Monterey, Calif., on October 19, believing war had come. He discovered peace, withdrew, and saluted. A similar incident occurred a week later at San Diego.
1843 — China. Sailors and marines from the St. Louis were landed after a clash between Americans and Chinese at the trading post in Canton.
1843 — Africa. – November 29 to December 16. Four United States vessels demonstrated and landed various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to discourage piracy and the slave trade along the Ivory Coast, and to punish attacks by the natives on American seamen and shipping.
1844 — Mexico. President Tyler deployed US forces to protect Texas against Mexico, pending Senate approval of a treaty of annexation. (Later rejected.) He defended his action against a Senate resolution of inquiry.
1846-48 — Mexican-American War On May 13,1846, the United States recognized the existence of a state of war with Mexico. After the annexation of Texas in 1845, the United States and Mexico failed to resolve a boundary dispute and President Polk said that it was necessary to deploy forces in Mexico to meet a threatened invasion.
1849 – Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey). In July a naval force gained release of an American seized by Austrian officials.
1851 — Turkey. After a massacre of foreigners (including Americans) at Jaffa in January, a demonstration by the Mediterranean Squadron was ordered along the Turkish (Levant) coast.
1851 — Johanns Island (east of Africa). – August. Forces from the US sloop of war Dale exacted redress for the unlawful imprisonment of the captain of an American whaling brig.
1852-53 — Argentina. – February 3 to 12, 1852; September 17, 1852 to April 1853. Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect American interests during a revolution.
1853 — Nicaragua. – March 11 to 13. US forces landed to protect American lives and interests during political disturbances
1853-54 — Japan. Commodore Matthew Perry and his expedition made a display of force leading to the “opening of Japan.”
1853-54 — Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands (Japan). Commodore Matthew Perry on three visits before going to Japan and while waiting for a reply from Japan made a naval demonstration, landing marines twice, and secured a coaling concession from the ruler of Naha on Okinawa; he also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands with the purpose of securing facilities for commerce.
1854 — China. – April 4 to June 15 to 17. American and English ships landed forces to protect American interests in and near Shanghai during Chinese civil strife.
1854 — Nicaragua. – July 9 to 15. Naval forces bombarded and burned San Juan del Norte (Greytown) to avenge an insult to the American Minister to Nicaragua.
1855 — China. – May 19 to 21. US forces protected American interests in Shanghai and, from August 3 to 5 fought pirates near Hong Kong.
1855 — Fiji Islands. – September 12 to November 4. An American naval force landed to seek reparations for attacks on American residents and seamen.
1855 — Uruguay. – November 25 to 29. United States and European naval forces landed to protect American interests during an attempted revolution in Montevideo.
1856 — Panama, Republic of New Grenada. – September 19 to 22. US forces landed to protect American interests during an insurrection.
1856 — China. – October 22 to December 6. US forces landed to protect American interests at Canton during hostilities between the British and the Chinese, and to avenge an assault upon an unarmed boat displaying the United States flag.
1857-58 — Utah War. The Utah War was a dispute between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the United States federal government. The Mormons and Washington each sought control over the government of the territory, with the national government victorious. The confrontation between the Mormon militia and the U.S. Army involved some destruction of property, but no actual battles between the contending military forces.
1857 — Nicaragua. – April to May, November to December. In May Commander Charles H. Davis of the United States Navy, with some marines, received the surrender of William Walker, self-proclaimed president of Nicaragua, who was losing control of the country to forces financed by his former business partner, Cornelius Vanderbilt, and protected his men from the retaliation of native allies who had been fighting Walker. In November and December of the same year United States vessels USS Saratoga, USS Wabash, and Fulton opposed another attempt of William Walker on Nicaragua. Commodore Hiram Paulding’s act of landing marines and compelling the removal of Walker to the United States, was tacitly disavowed by Secretary of State Lewis Cass, and Paulding was forced into retirement.
1858 — Uruguay. – January 2 to 27. Forces from two United States warships landed to protect American property during a revolution in Montevideo.
1858 — Fiji Islands. – October 6 to 16. A marine expedition with the USS Vandalia enacted revenge on natives for the murder of two American citizens at Waya.
1858-59 — Turkey. The Secretary of State requested a display of naval force along the Levant after a massacre of Americans at Jaffa and mistreatment elsewhere “to remind the authorities (of Turkey) of the power of the United States.”
1859 — Paraguay. Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek redress for an attack on a naval vessel in the Parana River during 1855. Apologies were made after a large display of force.
1859 — Mexico. Two hundred United States soldiers crossed the Rio Grande in pursuit of the Mexican nationalist Juan Cortina. [1859 Mexico]
1859 — China. – July 31 to August 2. A naval force landed to protect American interests in Shanghai.
1860 — Angola, Portuguese West Africa. – March 1. American residents at Kissembo called upon American and British ships to protect lives and property during problems with natives.
1860 — Colombia, Bay of Panama. – September 27 to October 8. Naval forces landed to protect American interests during a revolution.
1861-65 — American Civil War A major war between the United States (the “Union”) and eleven Southern which declared that they had a right to secession and formed the Confederate States of America.
1863 — Japan. – July 16. Naval battle of Shimonoseki. The USS Wyoming retaliated against a firing on the American vessel Pembroke at Shimonoseki.
1864 — Japan. – July 14 to August 3. Naval forces protected the United States Minister to Japan when he visited Yedo to negotiate concerning some American claims against Japan, and to make his negotiations easier by impressing the Japanese with American power.
1864 — Japan. – September 4 to 14. Naval forces of the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands compelled Japan and the Prince of Nagato in particular to permit the Straits of Shimonoseki to be used by foreign shipping in accordance with treaties already signed.
1865 — Panama. – March 9 and 10. US forces protected the lives and property of American residents during a revolution.
1865-1876 US Southern States — Post Civil War Reconstruction
1866 — Mexico. To protect American residents, General Sedgwick and 100 men in November obtained surrender of Matamoros, on the border State of Tamaulipas. After three days he was ordered by US Government to withdraw. His act was repudiated by the President.
1866 — China. From June 20 to July 7, US forces punished an assault on the American consul at Newchwang.
1867 — Nicaragua. Marines occupied Managua and Leon.1865-77
1867 — Formosa (island of Taiwan) – June 13. A naval force landed and burned a number of huts to punish the murder of the crew of a wrecked American vessel.1865-77
1868 — Japan (Osaka, Hiolo, Nagasaki, Yokohama, and Negata). – February 4 to 8, April 4 to May 12, June 12 and 13. US forces were landed to protect American interests during the civil war in Japan.
1868 — Uruguay. – February 7 and 8, 19 to 26. US forces protected foreign residents and the customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo.
1868 — Colombia. – April. US forces protected passengers and treasure in transit at Aspinwall during the absence of local police or troops on the occasion of the death of the President of Colombia.
1870 — Mexico. – June 17 and 18. US forces destroyed the pirate ship Forward, which had been run aground about 40 miles up the Rio Tecapan.
1870 — Hawaiian Islands. – September 21. US forces placed the American flag at half mast upon the death of Queen Kalama, when the American consul at Honolulu would not assume responsibility for so doing.
1871 — Korea. Shinmiyangyo Battle in Korea – June 10 to 12. A US naval force attacked and captured five forts to punish natives for depredations on Americans, particularly for murdering the crew of the General Sherman and burning the schooner, and for later firing on other American small boats taking soundings up the Salee River.
1873 — Colombia (Bay of Panama). – May 7 to 22, September 23 to October 9. U.S. forces protected American interests during hostilities between local groups over control of the government of the State of Panama.
1873-96 — Mexico. United States troops crossed the Mexican border repeatedly in pursuit of cattle and other thieves and other brigands.
1874 — Hawaiian Islands. – February 12 to 20. Detachments from American vessels were landed to preserve order and protect American lives and interests during the coronation of a new king.
1876 — Mexico. – May 18. An American force was landed to police the town of Matamoros, Tamaulipas State, temporarily while it was without other government.
1882 — Egypt. – July 14 to 18. American forces landed to protect American interests during warfare between British and Egyptians and looting of the city of Alexandria by Arabs.
1885 — Panama (Colon). – January 18 and 19. US forces were used to guard the valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad, and the safes and vaults of the company during revolutionary activity. In March, April, and May in the cities of Colon and Panama, the forces helped reestablish freedom of transit during revolutionary activity.
1888 — Korea. – June. A naval force was sent ashore to protect American residents in Seoul during unsettled political conditions, when an outbreak of the populace was expected.
1888 — Haiti. – December 20. A display of force persuaded the Haitian Government to give up an American steamer which had been seized on the charge of breach of blockade.
1888-89 — Samoa. – November 14, 1888, to March 20, 1889. US forces were landed to protect American citizens and the consulate during a native civil war.
1889 — Hawaiian Islands. – July 30 and 31. US forces protected American interests at Honolulu during a revolution.
1890 — Argentina. A naval party landed to protect US consulate and legation in Buenos Aires.
1891 — Haiti. US forces sought to protect American lives and property on Navassa Island.
1891 — Bering Strait. – July 2 to October 5. Naval forces sought to stop seal poaching.
1891 — Chile. – August 28 to 30. US forces protected the American consulate and the women and children who had taken refuge in it during a revolution in Valparaiso.
1893 — Hawaii. – January 16 to April 1. Marines were landed ostensibly to protect American lives and property, but many believed actually to promote a provisional government under Sanford B. Dole. This action was disavowed by the United States.
1894 — Brazil. – January. A display of naval force sought to protect American commerce and shipping at Rio de Janeiro during a Brazilian civil war.
1894 — Nicaragua. – July 6 to August 7. US forces sought to protect American interests at Bluefields following a revolution.
1894-95 — China. Marines were stationed at Tientsin and penetrated to Peking for protection purposes during the First Sino-Japanese War.
1894-95 — China. A naval vessel was beached and used as a fort at Newchwang for protection of American nationals.
1894-96 — Korea. – July 24, 1894 to April 3, 1896. A guard of marines was sent to protect the American legation and American lives and interests at Seoul during and following the Sino-Japanese War.
1895 — Colombia. – March 8 to 9. US forces protected American interests during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain.
1895-96 — Venezuela. – Settlement of boundary dispute.
1896 — Nicaragua. – May 2 to 4. US forces protected American interests in Corinto during political unrest.
1898 — Nicaragua. – February 7 and 8. US forces protected American lives and property at San Juan del Sur.
1898 — Spanish-American War On April 25, 1898, the United States declared war with Spain. The war followed a Cuban insurrection, the Cuban War of Independence against Spanish rule and the sinking of the USS Maine in the harbor at Havana.
1898-99 — Samoa. Second Samoan Civil War a conflict that reached a head in 1898 when Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States were locked in dispute over who should have control over the Samoan island chain.
1898-99 — China. – November 5, 1898 to March 15, 1899. US forces provided a guard for the legation at Peking and the consulate at Tientsin during contest between the Dowager Empress and her son.
1899 — Nicaragua. American and British naval forces were landed to protect national interests at San Juan del Norte, February 22 to March 5, and at Bluefields a few weeks later in connection with the insurrection of Gen. Juan P. Reyes.
1899-1913 — Philippine Islands. Philippine-American War US forces protected American interests following the war with Spain, defeating rebellious Filipinos seeking immediate national independence. The U.S. government declared the “insurgency” officially over in 1902, when the Filipino leadership generally accepted American rule. Skirmishes between government troops and armed groups lasted until 1913, and some historians consider these unofficial extensions of the war.
1900 — China. – May 24 to September 28. Boxer Rebellion American troops participated in operations to protect foreign lives during the Boxer rising, particularly at Peking. For many years after this experience a permanent legation guard was maintained in Peking, and was strengthened at times as trouble threatened.
1901 — Colombia (State of Panama). – November 20 to December 4. Panamanian Revolution US forces protected American property on the Isthmus and kept transit lines open during serious revolutionary disturbances.
1902 — Colombia. – April 16 to 23. US forces protected American lives and property at Bocas del Toro during a civil war.
1902 — Colombia (State of Panama). – September 17 to November 18. The United States placed armed guards on all trains crossing the Isthmus to keep the railroad line open, and stationed ships on both sides of Panama to prevent the landing of Colombian troops.
1903 — Honduras. – March 23 to 30 or 31. US forces protected the American consulate and the steamship wharf at Puerto Cortes during a period of revolutionary activity.
1903 — Dominican Republic. – March 30 to April 21. A detachment of marines was landed to protect American interests in the city of Santo Domingo during a revolutionary outbreak.
1903 — Syria. – September 7 to 12. US forces protected the American consulate in Beirut when a local Moslem uprising was feared.
1903-04 — Abyssinia (Ethiopia). Twenty-five marines were sent to Abyssinia to protect the US Consul General while he negotiated a treaty.
1903-14 — Panama. US forces sought to protect American interests and lives during and following the revolution for independence from Colombia over construction of the Isthmian Canal. With brief intermissions, United States Marines were stationed on the Isthmus from November 4, 1903, to January 21, 1914 to guard American interests.
1904 — Dominican Republic. – January 2 to February 11. American and British naval forces established an area in which no fighting would be allowed and protected American interests in Puerto Plata and Sosua and Santo Domingo City during revolutionary fighting.
1904 — Tangier, Morocco. “We want either Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead.” A squadron demonstrated to force release of a kidnapped American. Marines were landed to protect the consul general.
1904 — Panama. – November 17 to 24. US forces protected American lives and property at Ancon at the time of a threatened insurrection.
1904-05 — Korea. – January 5, 1904, to November 11, 1905. A guard of Marines was sent to protect the American legation in Seoul during the Russo-Japanese War.
1906-09 — Cuba. – September 1906 to January 23, 1909. US forces sought to protect interests and re-establish a government after revolutionary activity.
1907 — Honduras. – March 18 to June 8. To protect American interests during a war between Honduras and Nicaragua, troops were stationed in Trujillo, Ceiba, Puerto Cortes, San Pedro Sula, Laguna and Choloma.
1910 — Nicaragua. – May 19 to September 4, 1910. Occupation of Nicaragua US forces protected American interests at Bluefields.
1911 — Honduras. – January 26. American naval detachments were landed to protect American lives and interests during a civil war in Honduras.
1911 — China. As the nationalist revolution approached, in October an ensign and 10 men tried to enter Wuchang to rescue missionaries but retired on being warned away, and a small landing force guarded American private property and consulate at Hankow. Marines were deployed in November to guard the cable stations at Shanghai; landing forces were sent for protection in Nanking, Chinkiang, Taku and elsewhere.
1912 — Honduras. A small force landed to prevent seizure by the government of an American-owned railroad at Puerto Cortes. The forces were withdrawn after the United States disapproved the action.
1912 — Panama. Troops, on request of both political parties, supervised elections outside the Canal Zone.
1912 — Cuba. – June 5 to August 5. US forces protected American interests on the Province of Oriente, and in Havana.
1912 — China. – August 24 to 26, on Kentucky Island, and August 26 to 30 at Camp Nicholson. US forces protected Americans and American interests during revolutionary activity.
1912 — Turkey. – November 18 to December 3. US forces guarded the American legation at Constantinople during a Balkan War.
1912-25 — Nicaragua. – August to November 1912. US forces protected American interests during an attempted revolution. A small force, serving as a legation guard and seeking to promote peace and stability, remained until August 5, 1925.
1912-41 — China. The disorders which began with the overthrow of the dynasty during Kuomintang rebellion in 1912, which were redirected by the invasion of China by Japan, led to demonstrations and landing parties for the protection of US interests in China continuously and at many points from 1912 on to 1941. The guard at Peking and along the route to the sea was maintained until 1941. In 1927, the United States had 5,670 troops ashore in China and 44 naval vessels in its waters. In 1933 the United States had 3,027 armed men ashore. The protective action was generally based on treaties with China concluded from 1858 to 1901.
1913 — Mexico. – September 5 to 7. A few marines landed at Ciaris Estero to aid in evacuating American citizens and others from the Yaqui Valley, made dangerous for foreigners by civil strife.
1914 — Haiti. – January 29 to February 9, February 20 to 21, October 19. Intermittently US naval forces protected American nationals in a time of rioting and revolution. The specific order from the Secretary of the Navy to the invasion commander, Admiral William Deville Bundy, was to “protect American and foreign” interests.
1914 — Dominican Republic. – June and July. During a revolutionary movement, United States naval forces by gunfire stopped the bombardment of Puerto Plata, and by threat of force maintained Santo Domingo City as a neutral zone.
1914-17 — Mexico. Tampico Affair led to Occupation of Veracruz, Mexico. Undeclared Mexican–American hostilities followed the Tampico affair and Villa’s raids . Also Pancho Villa Expedition) — an abortive military operation conducted by the United States Army against the military forces of Francisco “Pancho” Villa from 1916 to 1917 and included capture of Vera Cruz. On March 19, 1915 on orders from President Woodrow Wilson, and with tacit consent by Venustiano Carranza General John J. Pershing led an invasion force of 10,000 men into Mexico to capture Villa.
1915-34 — Haiti. – July 28, 1915, to August 15, 1934. United States occupation of Haiti 1915-1934 US forces maintained order during a period of chronic political instability. During the initial entrance into Haiti, the specific order from the Secretary of the Navy to the invasion commander, Admiral William Deville Bundy, was to “protect American and foreign” interests.
1916 — China. American forces landed to quell a riot taking place on American property in Nanking.
1916-24 — Dominican Republic. – May 1916 to September 1924. Occupation of the Dominican Republic American naval forces maintained order during a period of chronic and threatened insurrection.
1917 — China. American troops were landed at Chungking to protect American lives during a political crisis.
1917-18 — World War I. On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war with Germany and on December 7, 1917, with Austria-Hungary. Entrance of the United States into the war was precipitated by Germany’s submarine warfare against neutral shipping.
1917-22 — Cuba. US forces protected American interests during insurrection and subsequent unsettled conditions. Most of the United States armed forces left Cuba by August 1919, but two companies remained at Camaguey until February 1922.
1918-19 — Mexico. After withdrawal of the Pershing expedition, US troops entered Mexico in pursuit of bandits at least three times in 1918 and six times in 1919. In August 1918 American and Mexican troops fought at Nogales, due to a crime committed by three drunk American soldiers.
1918-20 — Panama. US forces were used for police duty according to treaty stipulations, at Chiriqui, during election disturbances and subsequent unrest.
1918-20 — Soviet Union. Marines were landed at and near Vladivostok in June and July to protect the American consulate and other points in the fighting between the Bolshevik troops and the Czech Army which had traversed Siberia from the western front. A joint proclamation of emergency government and neutrality was issued by the American, Japanese, British, French, and Czech commanders in July. In August 7,000 men were landed in Vladivostok and remained until January 1920, as part of an allied occupation force. In September 1918, 5,000 American troops joined the allied intervention force at Archangel and remained until June 1919. These operations were in response to the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and were partly supported by Czarist or Kerensky elements. For details, see Polar Bear Expedition.
1919 — Dalmatia (Croatia). US forces were landed at Trau at the request of Italian authorities to police order between the Italians and Serbs.
1919 — Turkey. Marines from the USS Arizona were landed to guard the US Consulate during the Greek occupation of Constantinople.
1919 — Honduras. – September 8 to 12. A landing force was sent ashore to maintain order in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution.
1920 — China. – March 14. A landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukiang.
1920 — Guatemala. – April 9 to 27. US forces protected the American Legation and other American interests, such as the cable station, during a period of fighting between Unionists and the Government of Guatemala.
1920-22 — Russia (Siberia). – February 16, 1920, to November 19, 1922. A Marine guard was sent to protect the United States radio station and property on Russian Island, Bay of Vladivostok.
1921 — Panama – Costa Rica. American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute.
1922 — Turkey. – September and October. A landing force was sent ashore with consent of both Greek and Turkish authorities, to protect American lives and property when the Turkish Nationalists entered Smyrna.
1922-23 — China. Between April 1922 and November 1923, marines were landed five times to protect Americans during periods of unrest.
1924 — Honduras. – February 28 to March 31, September 10 to 15. US forces protected American lives and interests during election hostilities.
1924 — China. – September. Marines were landed to protect Americans and other foreigners in Shanghai during Chinese factional hostilities.
1925 — China. – January 15 to August 29. Fighting of Chinese factions accompanied by riots and demonstrations in Shanghai brought the landing of American forces to protect lives and property in the International Settlement.
1925 — Honduras. – April 19 to 21. US forces protected foreigners at La Ceiba during a political upheaval.
1925 — Panama. – October 12 to 23. Strikes and rent riots led to the landing of about 600 American troops to keep order and protect American interests.
1926-33 — Nicaragua. – May 7 to June 5, 1926; August 27, 1926, to January 3, 1933. The coup d’etat of General Chamorro aroused revolutionary activities leading to the landing of American marines to protect the interests of the United States. United States forces came and went intermittently until January 3, 1933.
1926 — China. – August and September. The Nationalist attack on Hankow brought the landing of American naval forces to protect American citizens. A small guard was maintained at the consulate general even after September 16, when the rest of the forces were withdrawn. Likewise, when Nationalist forces captured Kiukiang, naval forces were landed for the protection of foreigners November 4 to 6.
1927 — China. – February. Fighting at Shanghai caused American naval forces and marines to be increased. In March a naval guard was stationed at American consulate at Nanking after Nationalist forces captured the city. American and British destroyers later used shell fire to protect Americans and other foreigners. Subsequently additional forces of marines and naval forces were stationed in the vicinity of Shanghai and Tientsin.
1932 — China. American forces were landed to protect American interests during the Japanese occupation of Shanghai.
1933 — Cuba. During a revolution against President Gerardo Machado naval forces demonstrated but no landing was made.
1934 — China. Marines landed at Foochow to protect the American Consulate.
1940 — Newfoundland, Bermuda, St. Lucia, – Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, Trinidad, and British Guiana. Troops were sent to guard air and naval bases obtained by negotiation with Great Britain. These were sometimes called lend-lease bases.
1941 — Greenland. Greenland was taken under protection of the United States in April.
1941 — Netherlands (Dutch Guiana). In November the President ordered American troops to occupy Dutch Guiana, but by agreement with the Netherlands government in exile, Brazil cooperated to protect aluminum ore supply from the bauxite mines in Surinam.
1941 — Iceland. Iceland was taken under the protection of the United States, with consent of its government, for strategic reasons.
1941 — Germany. Sometime in the spring the President ordered the Navy to patrol ship lanes to Europe. By July US warships were convoying and by September were attacking German submarines. In November, the Neutrality Act was partly repealed to protect US military aid to Britain.
1941-45 — World War II. On December 8, 1941, the United States declared war with Japan in response to the surprise bombing of Pearl Harbor. The bombing was retaliation for the US embargo of scrap metal and gasoline exports to Japan and the embargo on Japanese access to the Panama Canal. This in turn was a retaliation to the Japanese invasion of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War. On December 11 1941, Hitler and Mussolini, the respective dictators of Germany and Italy, declared war on the United States. The United States responded on the same day by declaring war on Germany and Italy. On June 5, 1942, the United states declared war with Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. The US declared war against Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania in response to the declarations of war by those nations against the United States.
1945 — China. In October 50,000 US Marines were sent to North China to assist Chinese Nationalist authorities in disarming and repatriating the Japanese in China and in controlling ports, railroads, and airfields. This was in addition to approximately 60,000 US forces remaining in China at the end of World War II.
1945-49 Occupation of part of Germany.
1945-55 Occupation of part of Austria.
1945-46 Occupation of part of Italy.
1945-52 Occupation of Japan.
1945-46 Temporary reoccupation of the Philippines in preparation for independence.
1945-49 Occupation of South Korea and defeat of a leftist insurgency.
1946 — Trieste (Italy). President Truman ordered the increase of US troops along the zonal occupation line and the reinforcement of air forces in northern Italy after Yugoslav forces shot down an unarmed US Army transport plane flying over Venezia Giulia.. Earlier US naval units had been sent to the scene. Later the Free Territory of Trieste, Zone A.
1945-47 US Marines garrisoned in Mainland China to oversee the removal of Soviet and Japanese forces after World War II.
1948 — Palestine. A marine consular guard was sent to Jerusalem to protect the US Consul General.
1948 — Berlin. Berlin Airlift After the Soviet Union established a land blockade of the US, British, and French sectors of Berlin on June 24, 1948, the United States and its allies airlifted supplies to Berlin until after the blockade was lifted in May 1949.
1948-49 — China. Marines were dispatched to Nanking to protect the American Embassy when the city fell to Communist troops, and to Shanghai to aid in the protection and evacuation of Americans.
1950-53 — Korean Conflict. The United States responded to North Korean invasion of South Korea by going to its assistance, pursuant to United Nations Security Council resolutions. US forces deployed in Korea exceeded 300,000 during the last year of the conflict. Over 36,600 US military were killed in action.
1950-55 — Formosa (Taiwan). In June 1950 at the beginning of the Korean War, President Truman ordered the US Seventh Fleet to prevent Chinese Communist attacks upon Formosa and Chinese Nationalist operations against mainland China.
1954-55 — China. Naval units evacuated US civilians and military personnel from the Tachen Islands.
1955-64 — Vietnam. First military advisors sent to Vietnam on 12 Feb 1955. By 1964, US troop levels had grown to 21,000. On 7 August 1964. On 7 August 1964, US Congress approved Gulf of Tonkin resolution affirming “All necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States. . .to prevent further aggression. . . (and) assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asian Collective Defense Treaty (SEATO) requesting assistance. . .”[Vietnam timeline]
1956 — Egypt. A marine battalion evacuated US nationals and other persons from Alexandria during the Suez crisis.
1958 — Lebanon. Lebanon crisis of 1958 Marines were landed in Lebanon at the invitation of President Camille Chamoun to help protect against threatened insurrection supported from the outside. The President’s action was supported by a Congressional resolution passed in 1957 that authorized such actions in that area of the world.
1959-60 — The Caribbean. Second Marine Ground Task Force was deployed to protect US nationals following the Cuban revolution.
1962 — Thailand. The Third Marine Expeditionary Unit landed on May 17, 1962 to support that country during the threat of Communist pressure from outside; by July 30, the 5,000 marines had been withdrawn.
1962 — Cuba. Cuban Missile Crisis On October 22, President Kennedy instituted a “quarantine” on the shipment of offensive missiles to Cuba from the Soviet Union. He also warned Soviet Union that the launching of any missile from Cuba against nations in the Western Hemisphere would bring about US nuclear retaliation on the Soviet Union. A negotiated settlement was achieved in a few days.
1962-75 — Laos. From October 1962 until 1975, the United States played an important role in military support of anti-Communist forces in Laos.
1964 — Congo (Zaire). The United States sent four transport planes to provide airlift for Congolese troops during a rebellion and to transport Belgian paratroopers to rescue foreigners.
1959-75 — Vietnam War. US military advisers had been in South Vietnam for a decade, and their numbers had been increased as the military position of the Saigon government became weaker. After citing what he termed were attacks on US destroyers in the Tonkin Gulf, President Johnson asked in August 1964 for a resolution expressing US determination to support freedom and protect peace in Southeast Asia. Congress responded with the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, expressing support for “all necessary measures” the President might take to repel armed attacks against US forces and prevent further aggression. Following this resolution, and following a Communist attack on a US installation in central Vietnam, the United States escalated its participation in the war to a peak of 543,000 military personnel by April 1969.
1965 — Dominican Republic. Invasion of Dominican Republic The United States intervened to protect lives and property during a Dominican revolt and sent 20,000 US troops as fears grew that the revolutionary forces were coming increasingly under Communist control.
1967 — Congo (Zaire). The United States sent three military transport aircraft with crews to provide the Congo central government with logistical support during a revolt.
1968 — Laos & Cambodia. U.S. starts secret bombing campaign against targets along the Ho Chi Minh trail in the sovereign nations of Cambodia and Laos. The bombings last at least two years. (See Operation Commando Hunt)
1970 — Cambodia. US troops were ordered into Cambodia to clean out Communist sanctuaries from which Viet Cong and North Vietnamese attacked US and South Vietnamese forces in Vietnam. The object of this attack, which lasted from April 30 to June 30, was to ensure the continuing safe withdrawal of American forces from South Vietnam and to assist the program of Vietnamization.
1973 — Operation Nickel Grass, a strategic airlift operation conducted by the United States to deliver weapons and supplies to Israel during the Yom Kippur War.
1974 — Evacuation from Cyprus. United States naval forces evacuated US civilians during hostilities between Turkish and Greek Cypriot forces.
1975 — Evacuation from Vietnam. On April 3, 1975, President Ford reported US naval vessels, helicopters, and Marines had been sent to assist in evacuation of refugees and US nationals from Vietnam.
1975 — Evacuation from Cambodia. On April 12, 1975, President Ford reported that he had ordered US military forces to proceed with the planned evacuation of US citizens from Cambodia.
1975 — South Vietnam. On April 30 1975, President Ford reported that a force of 70 evacuation helicopters and 865 Marines had evacuated about 1,400 US citizens and 5,500 third country nationals and South Vietnamese from landing zones near the US Embassy in Saigon and the Tan Son Nhut Airfield.
1975 — Cambodia. Mayagüez Incident. On May 15, 1975, President Ford reported he had ordered military forces to retake the SS Mayaguez, a merchant vessel which was seized from Cambodian naval patrol boats in international waters and forced to proceed to a nearby island.
1976 — Lebanon. On July 22 and 23, 1974, helicopters from five US naval vessels evacuated approximately 250 Americans and Europeans from Lebanon during fighting between Lebanese factions after an overland convoy evacuation had been blocked by hostilities.
1976 — Korea. Additional forces were sent to Korea after two American soldiers were killed by North Korean soldiers in the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea while cutting down a tree.
1978 — Zaire (Congo). From May 19 through June 1978, the United States utilized military transport aircraft to provide logistical support to Belgian and French rescue operations in Zaire.
1980 — Iran. Operation Eagle Claw On April 26, 1980, President Carter reported the use of six US transport planes and eight helicopters in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue American hostages being held in Iran.
1981 — El Salvador. After a guerrilla offensive against the government of El Salvador, additional US military advisers were sent to El Salvador, bringing the total to approximately 55, to assist in training government forces in counterinsurgency.
1981 –Libya. First Gulf of Sidra Incident On August 19, 1981, US planes based on the carrier USS Nimitz shot down two Libyan jets over the Gulf of Sidra after one of the Libyan jets had fired a heat-seeking missile. The United States periodically held freedom of navigation exercises in the Gulf of Sidra, claimed by Libya as territorial waters but considered international waters by the United States.
1982 — Sinai. On March 19, 1982, President Reagan reported the deployment of military personnel and equipment to participate in the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai. Participation had been authorized by the Multinational Force and Observers Resolution, Public Law 97-132.
1982 — Lebanon. Multinational Force in Lebanon On August 21, 1982, President Reagan reported the dispatch of 80 marines to serve in the multinational force to assist in the withdrawal of members of the Palestine Liberation force from Beirut. The Marines left September 20, 1982.
1982-1983 — Lebanon. On September 29, 1982, President Reagan reported the deployment of 1200 marines to serve in a temporary multinational force to facilitate the restoration of Lebanese government sovereignty. On Sept. 29, 1983, Congress passed the Multinational Force in Lebanon Resolution (P.L. 98-119) authorizing the continued participation for eighteen months.
1983 — Egypt. After a Libyan plane bombed a city in Sudan on March 18, 1983, and Sudan and Egypt appealed for assistance, the United States dispatched an AWACS electronic surveillance plane to Egypt.
1983 — Grenada. Citing the increased threat of Soviet and Cuban influence and noting the development of an international airport following a bloodless Grenada coup d’etat and alignment with the Soviets and Cuba, the U.S. launches Operation Urgent Fury to invade the sovereign island nation of Grenada.
1983-89 — Honduras. In July 1983 the United States undertook a series of exercises in Honduras that some believed might lead to conflict with Nicaragua. On March 25, 1986, unarmed US military helicopters and crewmen ferried Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border to repel Nicaraguan troops.
1983 — Chad. On August 8, 1983, President Reagan reported the deployment of two AWACS electronic surveillance planes and eight F-15 fighter planes and ground logistical support forces to assist Chad against Libyan and rebel forces.
1984 — Persian Gulf. On June 5, 1984, Saudi Arabian jet fighter planes, aided by intelligence from a US AWACS electronic surveillance aircraft and fueled by a U.S. KC-10 tanker, shot down two Iranian fighter planes over an area of the Persian Gulf proclaimed as a protected zone for shipping.
1985 — Italy. On October 10, 1985, US Navy pilots intercepted an Egyptian airliner and forced it to land in Sicily. The airliner was carrying the hijackers of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro who had killed an American citizen during the hijacking.
1986 — Libya. Libyan Patrol Boats On March 26, 1986, President Reagan reported on March 24 and 25, US forces, while engaged in freedom of navigation exercises around the Gulf of Sidra, had been attacked by Libyan missiles and the United States had responded with missiles.
1986 — Libya. Operation El Dorado Canyon On April 16, 1986, President Reagan reported that U.S. air and naval forces had conducted bombing strikes on terrorist facilities and military installations in the Libyan capitol of Tripoli, claiming that Libyan leader Col. Muammar al-Gaddafi was responsible for a bomb attack at a German disco that killed two U.S. soldiers.
1986 — Bolivia. U.S. Army personnel and aircraft assisted Bolivia in anti-drug operations.
1987-88 — Persian Gulf. After the Iran-Iraq War resulted in several military incidents in the Persian Gulf, the United States increased US joint military forces operations in the Persian Gulf and adopted a policy of reflagging and escorting Kuwaiti oil tankers through the Gulf, called Operation Earnest Will. President Reagan reported that US ships had been fired upon or struck mines or taken other military action on September 21 (Iran Ajr), October 8, and October 19, 1987 and April 18 (Operation Praying Mantis), July 3, and July 14, 1988. The United States gradually reduced its forces after a cease-fire between Iran and Iraq on August 20, 1988. It was the largest naval convoy operation since World War II.
1987-88 — Operation Earnest Will was the U.S. military protection of Kuwaiti oil tankers from Iraqi and Iranian attacks in 1987 and 1988 during the Tanker War phase of the Iran-Iraq War. It was the largest naval convoy operation since World War II.
1987-88 — Operation Prime Chance was a United States Special Operations Command operation intended to protect U.S. -flagged oil tankers from Iranian attack during the Iran-Iraq War. The operation took place roughly at the same time as Operation Earnest Will.
1988 — Operation Praying Mantis was the April 18, 1988 action waged by U.S. naval forces in retaliation for the Iranian mining of the Persian Gulf and the subsequent damage to an American warship.
1988 — Operation Golden Pheasant was an emergency deployment of U.S. troops to Honduras in 1988, as a result of threatening actions by the forces of the (then socialist) Nicaraguans.
1988 — USS Vincennes shoot down of Iran Air Flight 655
1988 — Panama. In mid-March and April 1988, during a period of instability in Panama and as the United States increased pressure on Panamanian head of state General Manuel Noriega to resign, the United States sent 1,000 troops to Panama, to “further safeguard the canal, US lives, property and interests in the area.” The forces supplemented 10,000 US military personnel already in the Panama Canal Zone.
1989 — Libya. Second Gulf of Sidra Incident On January 4, 1989, two US Navy F-14 aircraft based on the USS John F. Kennedy shot down two Libyan jet fighters over the Mediterranean Sea about 70 miles north of Libya. The US pilots said the Libyan planes had demonstrated hostile intentions.
1989 — Panama. On May 11, 1989, in response to General Noriega’s disregard of the results of the Panamanian election, President Bush ordered a brigade-sized force of approximately 1,900 troops to augment the estimated 11,000 U.S. forces already in the area.
1989 — Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. Andean Initiative in War on Drugs. On September 15, 1989, President Bush announced that military and law enforcement assistance would be sent to help the Andean nations of Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru combat illicit drug producers and traffickers. By mid-September there were 50-100 US military advisers in Colombia in connection with transport and training in the use of military equipment, plus seven Special Forces teams of 2-12 persons to train troops in the three countries.
1989 — Philippines. On December 2, 1989, President Bush reported that on December 1 US fighter planes from Clark Air Base in the Philippines had assisted the Aquino government to repel a coup attempt. In addition, 100 marines were sent from the US Navy base at Subic Bay to protect the US Embassy in Manila.
1989-90 — Panama. Operation Just Cause On December 21, 1989, the U.S. invades the sovereign nation of Panama to “further safeguard the canal, US lives, property and interests in the area.” Around 200 Panamanian civilians were reported killed. The Panamanian head of state, General Manuel Noriega, is captured and brought to the U.S. By February 13, 1990, all the invasion forces had been withdrawn.
1990 — Liberia. On August 6, 1990, President Bush reported that a reinforced rifle company had been sent to provide additional security to the US Embassy in Monrovia, and that helicopter teams had evacuated US citizens from Liberia.
1990 — Saudi Arabia. On August 9, 1990, President Bush reported that he had ordered the forward deployment of substantial elements of the US armed forces into the Persian Gulf region to help defend Saudi Arabia after the August 2 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. On November 16, 1990, he reported the continued buildup of the forces to ensure an adequate offensive military option.
1991 — Iraq. Persian Gulf War On January 16 America attacked Iraqi forces and military targets in Iraq and Kuwait, in conjunction with a coalition of allies and UN Security Council resolutions. Combat operations ended on February 28, 1991. (See Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm)
1991 — Iraq. On May 17, 1991, President Bush stated that the Iraqi repression of the Kurdish people had necessitated a limited introduction of US forces into northern Iraq for emergency relief purposes.
1991 — Zaire. On September 25-27, 1991, after widespread looting and rioting broke out in Kinshasa, US Air Force C-141s transported 100 Belgian troops and equipment into Kinshasa. US planes also carried 300 French troops into the Central African Republic and hauled evacuated American citizens.
1991-96 — Operation Provide Comfort. Delivery of humanitarian relief and military protection for Kurds fleeing their homes in northern Iraq, by a small Allied ground force based in Turkey.
1992 — Sierra Leone. On May 3, 1992, US military planes evacuated Americans from Sierra Leone, where military leaders had overthrown the government.
1992 — Kuwait. On August 3, 1992, the United States began a series of military exercises in Kuwait, following Iraqi refusal to recognize a new border drawn up by the United Nations and refusal to cooperate with UN inspection teams.
1992-2003 — Iraq. Iraqi No-Fly Zones The U.S. together with the United Kingdom declares and enforces “no fly zones” over the majority of sovereign Iraqi airspace, prohibiting Iraqi flights in zones in southern Iraq and northern Iraq, and conducting aerial reconnaissance and bombings.
1992-95 — Somalia. “Operation Restore Hope” Somali Civil War On December 10, 1992, President Bush reported that he had deployed US armed forces to Somalia in response to a humanitarian crisis and a UN Security Council Resolution. The operation came to an end on May 4, 1993. US forces continued to participate in the successor United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II). (See also Battle of Mogadishu)
1993-Present — Bosnia-Herzegovina.
1993 — Macedonia. On July 9, 1993, President Clinton reported the deployment of 350 US soldiers to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to participate in the UN Protection Force to help maintain stability in the area of former Yugoslavia.
1993-95 — Haiti. Operation Uphold Democracy US ships had begun embargo against Haiti. Up to 20,000 US military troops were later deployed to Haiti.
1994 — Macedonia. On April 19, 1994, President Clinton reported that the US contingent in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia had been increased by a reinforced company of 200 personnel.
1995 — Bosnia. NATO bombing of Bosnian Serbs. (See Operation Deliberate Force)
1996 — Liberia. On April 11, 1996, President Clinton reported that on April 9, 1996 due to the “deterioration of the security situation and the resulting threat to American citizens” in Liberia he had ordered US military forces to evacuate from that country “private US citizens and certain third-country nationals who had taken refuge in the US Embassy compound….”
1996 — Central African Republic. On May 23, 1996, President Clinton reported the deployment of US military personnel to Bangui, Central African Republic, to conduct the evacuation from that country of “private US citizens and certain U.S. Government employees,” and to provide “enhanced security for the American Embassy in Bangui.”
1997 — Albania. On March 13, 1997, US military forces were used to evacuate certain U.S. Government employees and private US citizens from Tirana, Albania.
1997 — Congo and Gabon. On March 27, 1997, President Clinton reported on March 25, 1997, a standby evacuation force of US military personnel had been deployed to Congo and Gabon to provide enhanced security and to be available for any necessary evacuation operation.
1997 — Sierra Leone. On May 29 and May 30, 1997, US military personnel were deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone, to prepare for and undertake the evacuation of certain US government employees and private US citizens.
1997 — Cambodia. On July 11, 1997, In an effort to ensure the security of American citizens in Cambodia during a period of domestic conflict there, a Task Force of about 550 US military personnel were deployed at Utapao Air Base in Thailand for possible evacuations.
1998 — Iraq. US-led bombing campaign against Iraq. (See Operation Desert Fox)
1998 — Guinea-Bissau. On June 10, 1998, in response to an army mutiny in Guinea-Bissau endangering the US Embassy, President Clinton deployed a standby evacuation force of US military personnel to Dakar, Senegal, to evacuate from the city of Bissau.
1998 – 1999 Kenya and Tanzania. US military personnel were deployed to Nairobi, Kenya, to coordinate the medical and disaster assistance related to the bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.
1998 — Afghanistan and Sudan. Operation Infinite Reach On August 20th, air strikes were used against two suspected terrorist training camps in Afghanistan and a suspected chemical factory in Sudan.
1998 — Liberia. On September 27, 1998 America deployed a stand-by response and evacuation force of 30 US military personnel to increase the security force at the US Embassy in Monrovia.
1999 – 2001 East Timor. East Timor Independence Limited number of US military forces deployed with UN to restore peace to East Timor.
1999 — NATO’s bombing of Serbia in the Kosovo Conflict. (See Operation Allied Force)
2000 — Sierra Leone. On May 12, 2000 a US Navy patrol craft deployed to Sierra Leone to support evacuation operations from that country if needed.
2000 — Yemen. On October 12, 2000, after the USS Cole attack in the port of Aden, Yemen, military personnel were deployed to Aden.
2000 — East Timor. On February 25, 2000, a small number of U.S. military personnel were deployed to support of the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET).
2001 — September 11 terrorist attacks-New York World Trade Center, Washington Pentagon, Shanksville plane crashes
2001 — Afghanistan. US invasion of Afghanistan. The War on Terrorism begins with Operation Enduring Freedom. On October 7, 2001, US Armed Forces “began combat action in Afghanistan against Al Qaida terrorists and their Taliban supporters.”
2002 — Yemen. On November 3, 2002, an American MQ-1 Predator fired a Hellfire missile at a car in Yemen killing Qaed Senyan al-Harthi, an al-Qaeda leader thought to be responsible for the USS Cole bombing.
2002 — Philippines. January 2002 U.S. “combat-equipped and combat support forces” have been deployed to the Philippines to train with, assist and advise the Philippines’ Armed Forces in enhancing their “counterterrorist capabilities.”
2002 — Cote d’Ivoire. On September 25, 2002, in response to a rebellion in Cote d’Ivoire, US military personnel went into Cote d’Ivoire to assist in the evacuation of American citizens from Bouake.
2003 — 2003 invasion of Iraq Second Persian Gulf War. March 20, 2003. The United States leads a coalition that includes Britain, Australia and Spain to invade Iraq with the stated goal of eliminating Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.
2003 — Liberia. Second Liberian Civil War On June 9, 2003, President Bush reported that on June 8 he had sent about 35 combat-equipped US military personnel into Monrovia, Liberia, to help secure the US Embassy in Nouakchott, Mauritania, and to aid in any necessary evacuation from either Liberia or Mauritania.
2003 — Georgia and Djibouti “US combat equipped and support forces” had been deployed to Georgia and Djibouti to help in enhancing their “counterterrorist capabilities.”
2004 — 2004 Haïti rebellion occurs. The US sent first sent 55 combat equipped military personnel to augment the US Embassy security forces there and to protect American citizens and property in light. Later 200 additional US combat-equipped, military personnel were sent to prepare the way for a UN Multinational Interim Force.
2004 — “War on Terrorism”: US “anti-terror” related activities were underway in Georgia, Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Eritrea.
2006 — Pakistan. 17 people including known Al Qaeda bomb maker and chemical weapons expert Midhat Mursi, were killed in an American MQ-1 Predator airstrike on Damadola (Pakistan), near the Afghan border.
2006 — Lebanon. US Marine Detachment, the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit, begins evacuation of US citizens willing to the leave the country in the face of a likely ground invasion by Israel and continued fighting between Hezbollah and the Israeli military.
2007 — Somalia. Battle of Ras Kamboni. On January 8, 2007, while the conflict between the Islamic Courts Union and the Transitional Federal Government continues, an AC-130 gunship conducts an aerial strike on a suspected Al-Qaeda operative, along with other Islamist fighters, on Badmadow Island near Ras Kamboni in southern Somalia.
“American-Indian” battles in the war of extermination of the Native Americans
* Battle of Oriskany (1777)
* Wyoming Valley Massacre (1778)
* Cherry Valley Massacre (1778)
* Sullivan Expedition (1779)
* Battle of Blue Licks (1782)
* Northwest Indian War (1785–1795)
* Nickajack Expedition (1794)
* Sabine Expedition (1806)
* War of 1812 (western theatre), which included:
* Tecumseh’s War (1811-1813)
* Peoria War (1813)
* Creek War (1813–1814)
* Seminole Wars (1812, 1817–1818, 1835–1842, 1855–1858)
* Arikara War (1823)
* Fever River War (1827)
* Le Fèvre Indian War (1827)
* Black Hawk War (1832)
* Pawnee Indian Territory Campaign (1834)
* Creek War of 1836, aka Second Creek War or Creek Alabama Uprising (1835-1837)
* Missouri-Iowa Border War (1836)
* Southwestern Frontier (Sabine) disturbances (no fighting) (1836–1837)
* Cherokee Uprising (1836-1838)
* Osage Indian War (1837)
* Cayuse War (1848–1855)
* Navajo Wars (1849–1861)
o Long Walk of the Navajo (1863–1868)
* Southwest Indian Wars (1849-1863)
* Pitt River Expedition (1850)
* Mariposa War (1850–1851)
* Yuma Expedition (1851–1852)
* Utah Indian Wars (1851-1853)
* Walker War (1853)
* Grattan Massacre (1855)
* Yakima War (1855)
* Snake River War (1855)
* Klickitat War (1855)
* Puget Sound War (1855–1856)
* Rogue River Wars (1855–1856)
* Klamath and Salmon Indian Wars (1855)
* Tintic War (1856)
* Gila Expedition (1857)
* Mendocino War (1858)
* Spokane-Coeur d’Alene-Paloos War (1858)
* Pecos Expedition (1859)
* Antelope Hills Expedition (1859)
* Bear River Expedition (1859)
* Paiute War (1860)
* Kiowa-Comanche War (1860)
* Cheyenne Campaign (1861–1864)
* Dakota War of 1862 (1862)
* Bear River Massacre (1863)
* Colorado War (1863–1865)
* Kidder Massacre (1867)
* Snake War (1864–1868)
* Utah’s Black Hawk War (1865–1872)
* Red Cloud’s War (1866–1868)
* Comanche Wars (1867–1875)
* Battle of Washita River (1868)
* Marias Massacre (1870)
* Modoc War (1872–1873)
* Red River War (1874)
* Apache Wars (1873, 1885–1886)
* Eastern Navada Expedition (1875)
* Black Hills War (1876–1877)
* Nez Perce War (1877)
* Bannock War (1878)
* Cheyenne War (1878–1879)
* Sheepeater Indian War (1879)
* White River War (1879)
* Ute War (1879-1880)
* Ghost Dance War (1890–1891)
* Wounded Knee Massacre (1890)
* Battle of Leech Lake (1898)
* New Mexico Navajo War (1913)
* Colorado Paiute War (1915)
* AIM Takeovers (1969 – 75)
* Seneca Indian Nation Standoff and New York State Thruway Blockade (1997)