by Scott Humor

from my History Files

Particular attention should to be paid to the fact that it was the Anglo-Saxons that in 1943 set up several temporary occupation zones in Germany. It was them, also, who were making plans of fragmentation of Germany into a number of mini states. In fact, their idea of the post-war Germany was to repeat the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, that for over three hundred years eliminated Germany as a single nation from the European history.

The principled position of the Soviet Union in relation to unified Germany, Joseph Stalin made on February 23rd 1942 in the ORDER of the PEOPLE’S COMMISSAR OF DEFENSE OF THE USSR #55 Moscow

“The foreign press says sometimes that the Red Army aims to exterminate the German nation and destroy the German state. This, of course, is a silly nonsense and stupid slander against the Red Army. The Red Army can have no such idiotic purposes.

The Red Army aims to expel the German occupiers from our country and to liberate the Soviet lands from the German fascist invaders. It is very likely that the war for the liberation of Soviet lands will lead to the expulsion and destruction of Hitler’s clique. We would welcome such outcome. But it would be ridiculous to identify  Hitler’s clique with the German people, with German country. The knowledge of history shows that the “hitlers” come and go, but the German people and the German state remains.”

The second most important public statement showing that the Soviet Union position was a preservation of Germany was made by Joseph Stalin on May 9, 1945, in his radio address to the Soviet people on the Victory Day over Germany. The text was published by newspaper Pravda on May 10th, 1945. It’s known as the Speech of the Supreme Commander J. V. Stalin on May 9, 1945

“Three years ago Hitler publicly declared his goals including a dismemberment of the Soviet Union and separation from it the Caucasus, Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic States and other regions. He stated bluntly: “We will destroy Russia, so that she will never be able to rise up, ever again”.

It was three years ago. But the mad ideas of Hitler were not destined to come true, the course of the war scattered them to the winds. In fact, something completely opposite took place to what the Germans raved. Germany is defeated. The German troops surrender. The Soviet Union is celebrating victory, although it does not intend to dismember or destroy Germany.”

Quoted by the edition of  Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin, The Complete Collection of works, Volume 15

 


The Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers of the USSR, USA and Great Britain from 19 to 30 October, 1943.

On October 25th, 1943, during the discussion of the Allies’ plan presented by  Cordell Hull Basic Principles Regarding German Surrender.”

My translation of the official transcript of conversation between Anthony Eden and Molotov

Eden: In relation to the permanent status of Germany. We would like to have a division of Germany into separate states. Particularly, we would like to separate Prussia from the rest of Germany. We would therefore encourage… the separatists movement in Germany… It would be interesting to know an opinion of the Soviet government on this issue.”

Molotov: I say to Mr. Eden and Mr. Hull: In all measures of the allies aimed at maximizing the neutralization of Germany as an aggressive state, the Soviet government supports the UK and the United States of America. Is this enough or not enough?”

Eden. I would like to know what You, Mr. Molotov, think about this question that we are discussing. In London… we came to the conclusion that it would be exclusive to know Your opinion and an opinion of Marshal Stalin concerning dismemberment of Germany… the challenge presented here is whether we should try to use force…”

“Molotov: “The Soviet government is most likely behind in studying of this issue… Our leaders are now busy with military problems”.

Who divided Germany in 1945: What should Germans and Russians remember, by Sergey Brezkun, a Professor of the Academy of Military Sciences.

 


The Tehran Conference between Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill, 28 November to 1 December 1943

On December 1, Roosevelt, during the conversation with Stalin face to face during the breakfast said, “Shall we discuss the partition of Germany?”

Stalin replied: “I don’t mind”. [He meant that he didn’t mind to discuss the question. S.H.]

When the official discussion started, Roosevelt immediately declared that he would like to discuss the questions of Poland and Germany.

Stalin asked, if there were some other topics for a discussion.

Roosevelt immediately responded: “the Dismemberment of Germany.”

According to the stenographic record:

Churchill: I am for the dismemberment of Germany. But I would like to consider the question of the dismemberment of Prussia, also. I’m for the separation of Bavaria and other provinces from Germany.”

Roosevelt: I would like to state that I compiled by myself two months ago a plan for the dismemberment of Germany into five states.”

Churchill: The root of evil in Germany is Prussia.”

Roosevelt: Prussia must be weakened and reduced in size…… the second part… must be enabled in Hanover and North-Western regions of Germany. The third part of Saxony and a district of Leipzig. The fourth part is the Hessian province, Darmstadt, Kassel and the areas located to the South of the Rhine and the old town of Westphalia. A fifth of Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg. Each of these five parts will represent an independent state. In addition, the part of Germany should be allocated to the areas of the Kiel canal and Hamburg…”

Churchill: What You have stated is just a mouthful… I believe that there are two issues: one destructive and the other constructive. I have two thoughts. First is the isolation of Prussia…; the second is the separation of the southern provinces of Germany — Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Palatinate, from the Saar to Saxony inclusive… I think that the southern province is easy to tear from Prussia and to include into the Danube Confederation…”

Stalin remained silent during this exchange.

Stalin: I don’t like the plan for new associations (Stalin had in mind, of course, a collection of small artificial states. S.H. ). No matter how we approached the question of the dismemberment of Germany, it is not necessary to create a stillborn Association of the Danube countries. Hungary and Austria must exist separately from each other…”

Roosevelt: I agree with Marshal Stalin…”

Churchill: I don’t want to be interpreted as if I am not for dismemberment of Germany. But I wanted to say that if you divide Germany into several parts, then, as Marshal Stalin said that the time will come when the Germans will unite.”

“Stalin. There are no measures that would eliminate the possibility of the unification of Germany.”

Churchill. Marshal Stalin prefers a divided Europe?”

“Stalin. What does Europe have to do with all this? I don’t know whether to create four, five or six independent German States. This issue needs to be discussed. But it is clear to me that it is not necessary to create new unions of states.”

Sergey Kremlev, The Myths about 1945, Moscow. Publishing House Eksmo, 2010.

 Кремлёв Сергей. Название: Мифы о 1945 годеИздательский дом: Яуза : Эксмо. Год издания: 2010

 


The Potsdam Conference

From The Memoirs of Marshal Zhukov.  Georgiĭ Konstantinovich Zhukov.

“A serious discussion we had of the question that was brought up, yet again, by the delegations of the United States and England, on the dismemberment of Germany into three States: 1) Southern Germany; 2) Northern Germany;  and 3) the Western Germany.

The first time this question was raised by them at the Crimean Conference, which was rejected by the Soviet delegation.

In Potsdam, the head of the Soviet government again dismissed the question of the dismemberment of Germany.

J. V. Stalin used to say: “We should not allow in relation to the German people this historical injustice. The German people would never agree with artificial dismemberment of their homeland. This proposition we reject, it is unnatural. What we have to accomplish is not to dismember Germany, but to make it democratic and peace-loving state.”

The Soviet delegation at the Potsdam Conference insisted on an inclusion of a provision into the Potsdam conference final document a provision on the establishment of Central German administrative departments.

However, because of the opposition of the representatives of the Western powers, this decision was latter breached and discarded. The central government departments have not been established, and the unification of Germany on a peaceful and democratic basis, as envisaged in Potsdam, was not achieved.

It was Stalin who insisted during the Potsdam Conference that the Resolution of the Potsdam Conference included the following statement:

“The allies are not going to destroy or cast into slavery the German people. The allies intend to give to the German people the opportunity to prepare to continue to implement the reconstruction of their life on a democratic and peaceful basis.”

“THE POTSDAM CONFERENCE: 17 July to 2 August 1945.

THE MESSAGE OF THE BERLIN CONFERENCE OF THE THREE POWERS

Tehran – Yalta – Potsdam, Collection of documents, compiled by: W. P. Sanakoev, B. L. Cybulski. 2nd edition. Moscow.: Publishing house “International relations”, 1970. – 416 p.

On the last day of the Potsdam Conference Stalin twice spoke directly about a need for “a central administrative apparatus for Germany”, without which “the general policy against Germany is difficult to conduct”. [From Stalin’s point of view, the central administration for Germany could prevent the Allies from dividing the country, as they insisted. S.H.]

On the same day, talking about the preservation of the Ruhr industrial area in Germany, Stalin proposed in the final document of the Conference to make a record that the Ruhr area was to remain a part of Germany.

When the British foreign Minister Ernest Bevin asked, why Stalin even mentioned this question, Stalin said that “the idea of a separate Ruhr area has emerged initially from the thesis of the dismemberment of Germany,” and further said:

“After that there has been a change of views on this issue. Germany will remain a united country. The Soviet delegation asks this question: do you agree that the Ruhr area was left in Germany? That’s why this issue is brought up here.”

Truman agreed. Bevin whose government wanted to get their control over Ruhr, said that he needed to consult his government. He also said: “We offer not to create any central German government for some time.’

The History Of Germany . Volume 2. From the creation of the German Empire until the beginning of the XXI century

History of Germany : textbook : in 3 volumes / ed. by Y. V. Galaktionov. — Moscow: KDU, 2008.


On the first day of the Yalta conference, 4 February 1945

In response to Churchill’s offer to discuss “namely, on the future of Germany and if it even will have any future,”  Stalin briefly and sternly answered: “Germany will have a future.”

When the discussion started in Yalta, Stalin said that “if the allies intend to dismember Germany, so it is necessary to say so.”

 On February 5, 1945 Roosevelt stated that “under current conditions” he “doesn’t see any other ways out for Germany, but dismemberment”.

Stalin with his usual dark humor asked: “How many parts? Six to seven or less?”

 


This principle position to be against the dismemberment of Germany Stalin maintained until the end of the war. And this became the official position of the USSR.

THE POSITION OF THE USSR was against THE MORGENTHAU PLAN

Although, the Soviet Union suffered more than anyone else at the hands of German fascism, it, however, took a humane position.

Prior to May 9th, the US and Allies undertook numerous attempts to push the USSR cooperation on the division of Germany.

First Stalin was presented with the Hans Morgenthau plan of division of Germany, which was approved by Churchill and Roosevelt. Stalin rejected this plan.

The Morgenthau plan included the dismemberment of Germany, the transition of important industrial areas under international control, elimination of heavy industries, demilitarization and transformation of Germany into an agrarian country.

This second Morgenthau plan was proposed on September 1944 at the 2nd Quebec conference, which was attended by Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt. Stalin didn’t attend this conference. At the conference a Memorandum was signed, according to which Germany was supposed to become a predominantly agrarian country.

Latter, due to the opposition of the USSR the plan in its original form was rejected, however, in post-war Germany, the American administration has taken a number of measures to limit economic development (in particular, Directive JCS 1067).

On March 26, 1945, when, in accordance with the decisions made at the Yalta Conference, the commission on the dismemberment of Germany began its work in London, the Soviet representative at the Commission, F. T. Gusev, on behalf of the Soviet government sent to the Chairman of European Advisory Commission Anthony Eden a letter with the following statement:

“The Soviet government sees the decision of the Crimean Conference on the dismemberment of Germany as not a mandatory plan for the dismemberment of Germany, but as a possible perspective for the pressure on Germany to protect the USSR in case other means should prove insufficient”.

From this statement on any actual discussions of the dismemberment of Germany with the participation of the Soviet Union had stopped.

 


After the WWII

from the Interview of I.V. Stalin to the Moscow correspondent of the Sunday Times  Mr. Alexander Werth, from September 17, 1946.

Source: Stalin I. V. Works. – Vol. 16. – Moscow.: Publishing house “Pisatel”, 1997. P. 37-39.

“In short, the policy of the Soviet Union in terms of the German question comes down to the demilitarization and democratization of Germany…. The demilitarization and democratization of Germany are one of the most important guarantees of lasting and sustainable peace.”

——————

Scott Humor

Director of Research and Development

author of The enemy of the State

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